Cross-sectional case-control studies (Blue)
Serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) is an established biomarker of neuro-axonal damage in multiple neurological disorders. Raised sNfL levels have been reported in adults infected with pandemic COVID-19. Levels in children infected with COVID-19 have not as yet been reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether sNfL is elevated in children contracting COVID-19. Between May 22 and July 22, 2020, a network of outpatient pediatricians in Bavaria, Germany, the Coronavirus antibody screening in children from Bavaria study network (CoKiBa), recruited healthy children into a cross-sectional study from two sources: an ongoing prevention program for 1-14 years, and referrals of 1-17 years consulting a pediatrician for possible infection with SARS-CoV-2. The authors determined sNfL levels by single molecule array immunoassay and SARS-CoV-2 antibody status by two independent quantitative methods. Of the 2652 included children, 148 (5.6%) were SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive with asymptomatic to moderate COVID-19 infection. Neurological symptoms-headache, dizziness, muscle aches, or loss of smell and taste-were present in 47/148 cases (31.8%). Mean sNfL levels were 5.5 pg/ml (SD 2.9) in the total cohort, 5.1 (SD 2.1) pg/ml in the children with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and 5.5 (SD 3.0) pg/ml in those without. Multivariate regression analysis revealed age-but neither antibody status, antibody levels, nor clinical severity-as an independent predictor of sNfL. Follow-up of children with pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome (n = 14) showed no association with sNfL. The authors concluded that in this population study, children with asymptomatic to moderate COVID-19 showed no neurochemical evidence of neuronal damage.
Geis T, Brandstetter S, Toncheva AA, Laub O, Leipold G, Wagner R, Kabesch M, Kasser S, Kuhle J, Wellmann S; CoKiBa Study group. Serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) values in a large cross-sectional population of children with asymptomatic to moderate COVID-19. J Neurol. 2021 Apr 23. doi: 10.1007/s00415-021-10554-1