This report, recently published in Annals of Internal Medicine, represents the second update of a previously published living systematic review (Hernandez AV, Roman YM, Pasupuleti V, et al. Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for treatment or prophylaxis of COVID-19. A living systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2020;173:287-296.), focuses on treatment (not prophylaxis) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine. The first update covered evidence available through 1 July 2020 (Hernandez AV, Roman YM, Pasupuleti V, et al. Update alert: hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for the treatment or prophylaxis of COVID-19. Ann Intern Med. 2020;173:W78-9.) while this update evaluates evidence published through 1 August 2020. Evidence is at present weak and conflicting.