Literature Review (Grey)
The purpose of this review was to provide a summary of the neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), documented in the literature thus far, a small but growing literature. Patients with COVID-19 have experienced acute onset visual loss, optic neuritis, cranial neuropathies, and Miller Fisher syndrome. In addition, COVID-19 increases the risk of cerebrovascular diseases that can impact the visual system. When patients present with new onset neuro-ophthalmic issues, COVID-19 should be kept on the differential. Testing for COVID-19 should be considered, especially when fever or respiratory symptoms are also present. When screening general patients for COVID-19-associated symptoms, frontline physicians can consider including questions about diplopia, eye pain, pain with extraocular movements, decreased vision, gait issues, and other neurological symptoms. The authors concluded that more research is needed to establish whether a causal relationship exists between COVID-19 and neuro-ophthalmic disease, and to better understand pathogenesis.