Literature Review (Grey)
In late December 2019, multiple atypical pneumonia cases resulted in severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by a pathogen identified as a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The most common COVID-19 symptoms are pneumonia, fever, dry cough, and fatigue. Neurological complications following SARS-CoV-2 infection include confusion, cerebrovascular diseases, ataxia, hypogeusia, hyposmia, neuralgia, and seizures. Indeed, a growing literature demonstrates that neurotropism is a common feature of coronaviruses; therefore, the infection mechanisms already described in other coronaviruses may also be applicable for SARS-CoV-2. Understanding the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms in nervous system infection and neurological involvement is essential to assess possible long-term neurological alterations in COVID-19. In this review, the authors provide an overview of associated literature regarding possible routes of COVID-19 neuroinvasion, such as the trans-synapse-connected route in the olfactory pathway and peripheral nerve terminals and its neurological implications in the central nervous system.