Literature Review (Grey)
The full spectrum of neurological sequelae in COVID-19 is beginning to emerge. SARS-CoV-2 has the potential to cause both direct and indirect brain vascular endothelial damage through infection and inflammation that may result in long-term neurological signs and symptoms. In this article the authors sought to illuminate persistent neuro-ophthalmological deficits that may be seen following posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) due to COVID-19. They identified three individuals with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) due to COVID-19 in their hospital system. One patient was identified on presentation to our neuro-ophthalmology clinic. The other patients were identified through internal records search. These cases were compared to published reports of PRES in COVID-19 identified through systematic literature search of PubMed/LitCOVID. All three patients were hospitalized with severe COVID-19 and developed altered mental status with new onset seizures that led to the recognition of PRES through diagnostic imaging. During recovery, two patients had persistent visual dysfunction including visual field deficits. One patient also experienced hallucinatory palinopsia and visual hallucinations. Literature search identified 32 other cases of PRES in the context of COVID-19. Visual disturbances were described in 14 cases (40%), with only 7 cases (50%) reporting full recovering by the time of publication.
Hixon AM, Thaker AA, Pelak VS. Persistent visual dysfunction following PRES due to COVID-19: Case series and literature review. Eur J Neurol. 2021 Jun 11. doi: 10.1111/ene.14965