Cross-sectional case-control studies (Blue)
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to high mortality rates in nursing homes (NHs) in Europe. For adequate risk management and good prognostications, it is essential to identify mortality risk factors.
The objective of this study was to determine whether previously identified risk factors for 30-day mortality in Dutch NH residents with COVID-19 are unique to COVID-19. In this cohort study, the authors included 1,294 NH residents with COVID-19 (cases) and 17,999 NH residents without COVID-19 (controls, from the pre-COVID-19 period). They used descriptive statistics and Cox proportional hazard models to compare mortality rates in residents with and without COVID-19, categorized by risk factors. Cases had a more than 18 times higher hazard of death within 30 days compared to controls (HR 18, 95%CI: 16–20). For residents with COVID-19, being male, having dementia, and having Parkinson’s disease (PD) were all associated with a higher 30-day mortality (HR 1.8 versus 1.3 versus 1.7). Being male was also associated with a higher mortality (HR 1.7) in the control group, whereas having dementia and PD were not. COVID-19 symptomatology was very similar for residents with and without dementia or PD, except for delirium and malaise which was more frequent in residents with dementia. The authors concluded that dementia and PD were significant additional risk factors for mortality in Dutch NH residents with COVID-19, whereas male gender was not unique to residents with COVID-19. The frailty of PD and dementia in NH residents with COVID-19 are relevant to consider in prognostication, communication, and care planning with residents and their families.
Rutten JJS, van Kooten J, van Loon AM, van Buul LW, Joling KJ, Smalbrugge M, Hertogh CMPM. Dementia and Parkinson’s Disease: Risk Factors for 30-Day Mortality in Nursing Home Residents with COVID-19. J Alzheimers Dis. 2021 Sep 16. doi: 10.3233/JAD-210319.