Literature Review (Grey)
Headache is a frequent symptom following COVID-19 immunization with a typical onset within days post-vaccination. Cases of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) have been reported in adenovirus vector-based COVID-19 vaccine recipients. In this article the authors reviewed all vaccine related CVT published cases by April 30, 2021. They assessed demographic, clinical variables and the interval between the vaccination and onset of headache and whether the presence of headache was associated with higher probability of death or intracranial hemorrhage. 77 cases of CVT after COVID-19 vaccination were identified. Patients’ age was below 60 years in 74/77 (95.8%) cases and 61/68 (89.7%) were women. Headache was described in 38/77 (49.4%) cases, and in 35/38 (92.1%) was associated with other symptoms. Multiple organ thrombosis was reported in 19/77 (24.7%) cases, intracranial hemorrhage in 33/77 (42.9%) cases and 19/77 (24.7%) patients died. The median time between vaccination and CVT-related headache onset was 8 (interquartile range 7.0-9.7) days. The presence of headache was associated with a higher odd of intracranial hemorrhage (OR 7.4; 95% CI: 2.7-20.8, p < 0.001), but not with death (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.18-1.47, p = 0.213). The authors concluded that delayed onset of headache following an adenovirus vector-based COVID-19 vaccine is associated with development of CVT. Patients with new-onset headache, 1 week after vaccination with an adenovirus vector-based vaccine, should receive a thorough clinical evaluation and CVT must be ruled out.
García-Azorín D, Do TP, Gantenbein AR, Hansen JM, Souza MNP, Obermann M, Pohl H, Schankin CJ, Schytz HW, Sinclair A, Schoonman GG, Kristoffersen ES. Delayed headache after COVID-19 vaccination: a red flag for vaccine induced cerebral venous thrombosis. J Headache Pain. 2021 Sep 17;22(1):108. doi: 10.1186/s10194-021-01324-5.