Case series/case reports (Indigo)
COVID-19 pandemic is a global crisis which results in millions of deaths and causes long-term neurological sequelae, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this article the authors aimed to explore the interaction between COVID-19 and AD by integrating bioinformatics to find the biomarkers which lead to AD occurrence and development with COVID-19 and provide early intervention. The differential expressed genes (DEGs) were found by GSE147507 and GSE132903, respectively. The common genes between COVID-19 and AD were identified. Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and protein-protein interactions (PPI) network analysis were carried out. Hub genes were found by cytoscape. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. NetworkAnalyst was used for the analysis of TF-gene interactions, TF-miRNA coregulatory network, and Protein-chemical Interactions. Forty common DEGs for AD and COVID-19 were found. GO and KEGG analysis indicated that the DEGs were enriched in the calcium signal pathway and other pathways. A PPI network was constructed, and 5 hub genes were identified (ITPR1, ITPR3, ITPKB, RAPGEF3, MFGE8). Four hub genes (ITPR1, ITPR3, ITPKB, RAPGEF3) which were considered as important factors in the development of AD that were affected by COVID-19 were shown by nomogram. Utilizing NetworkAnalyst, the interaction network of 4 hub genes and TF, miRNA, common AD risk genes, and known compounds is displayed, respectively. The authors concluded that COVID-19 patients are at high risk of developing AD. Vaccination is required. Four hub genes can be considered as biomarkers for prediction and treatment of AD development caused by COVID-19. Compounds with neuroprotective effects can be used as adjuvant therapy for COVID-19 patients.
Wang F, Xu J, Xu SJ, Guo JJ, Wang F, Wang QW. Analysis and Identification Genetic Effect of SARS-CoV-2 Infections to Alzheimer’s Disease Patients by Integrated Bioinformatics. J Alzheimers Dis. 2021 Nov 8. doi: 10.3233/JAD-215086.