Cross-sectional case-control studies (Blue)
Read on for our pick of Covid-related cross-sectional case control studies from the scientific press for September 2022:
- BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine three-dose safety and risk of COVID-19 in patients with myasthenia gravis during the alpha, delta, and omicron waves
- Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and death for COVID-19 in people with Parkinson disease or parkinsonism over a 15-month period: A cohort study
- Antibody response after COVID-19 vaccination in intravenous immunoglobulin-treated immune neuropathies
- Pre-pandemic Alzheimer Disease biomarkers and anxious-depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 confinement in cognitively unimpaired adults
BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine three-dose safety and risk of COVID-19 in patients with myasthenia gravis during the alpha, delta, and omicron waves
COVID-19 affects the respiratory parenchyma and may potentially contribute to the tendency of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients to develop respiratory failure. It is, therefore, important to study the safety of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and to assess the risk of COVID-19 in MG patients. In this study, the safety of the three-dose BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine and outcomes of COVID-19 during the alpha, delta, and omicron waves were studied in MG patients as well as the rate of exacerbations and safety for a period of up to 6 weeks from each vaccine dose and patient morbidity and mortality during COVID-19 compared to the general population. 430 vaccine doses were administered across 150 patients. Thirteen patients (8.7%) complained of exacerbation within 6 weeks of each vaccine dose. Both MG onset rate and exacerbation rate were similar to previous years. MG exacerbation rate among fifteen patients who had COVID-19 was significantly higher (40%) compared to the rate following vaccination. During the alpha and delta waves, COVID-19 mortality and severe disease were significantly higher (26.7%) compared to the general population (0.96%). All of them were unvaccinated and had generalized MG. During the omicron wave, all the MG patients who contracted COVID-19 were vaccinated and had mild disease. The authors concluded that COVID-19 is hazardous for generalized MG patients, while the vaccination did not raise the risk for either exacerbation or new onset of MG and was associated with a reduced risk for severe COVID-19. Hence, it is recommended for generalized MG patients to get vaccinated.
Doron A, Piura Y, Vigiser I, Kolb H, Regev K, Nesher N, Karni A. BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine three-dose safety and risk of COVID-19 in patients with myasthenia gravis during the alpha, delta, and omicron waves. J Neurol. 2022 Jul 30:1–9. doi: 10.1007/s00415-022-11303-8.
Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and death for COVID-19 in people with Parkinson disease or parkinsonism over a 15-month period: A cohort study
The patterns of long-term risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization for COVID-19, and related death are uncertain in people with Parkinson disease (PD) or parkinsonism (PS). The aim of this study was to quantify these risks compared to a control population cohort, during the period March 2020–May 2021, in Bologna, Northern Italy. ParkLink Bologna cohort (759 PD, 192 PS) and controls (9226) anonymously matched (ratio = 1:10) for sex, age, district, and comorbidity were included. Data were analysed in the whole period and in the two different pandemic waves (March–May 2020 and October 2020–May 2021). Adjusted hazard ratio of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04–1.7) in PD and 1.9 (95% CI = 1.3–2.8) in PS compared to the controls. The trend was detected in both the pandemic waves. Adjusted hazard ratio of hospitalization for COVID-19 was 1.1 (95% CI = 0.8–1.7) in PD and 1.8 (95% CI = 0.97–3.1) in PS. A higher risk of hospital admission was detected in PS only in the first wave. The 30-day mortality risk after hospitalization was higher (p = 0.048) in PS (58%) than in PD (19%) and controls (26%). The authors concluded that compared with controls, after adjustment for key covariates, people with PD and PS showed a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection throughout the first 15 months of the pandemic. COVID-19 hospitalization risk was increased only in people with PS and only during the first wave. This group of patients was burdened by a very high risk of death after infection and hospitalization.
Zenesini C, Vignatelli L, Belotti LMB, Baccari F, Calandra-Buonaura G, Cortelli P, Descovich C, Giannini G, Guaraldi P, Guarino M, Loddo G, Pantieri R, Perlangeli V, Scaglione C, Stivanello E, Trombetti S, D’Alessandro R, Baldin E, Nonino F; ParkLink Bologna group. Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization and death for COVID-19 in people with Parkinson’s disease or parkinsonism over a 15-month period: a cohort study. Eur J Neurol. 2022 Jul 16:10.1111/ene.15505. doi: 10.1111/ene.15505.
Antibody response after COVID-19 vaccination in intravenous immunoglobulin-treated immune neuropathies
This study assessed the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in therapeutic immunoglobulin and their impact on serological response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in patients with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg)-treated chronic immune neuropathies. Forty-six samples of different brands or lots of IVIg or subcutaneous IgG were analyzed for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Blood sera from 16 patients with immune neuropathies were prospectively analyzed for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA, IgG, and IgM before and 1 week after IVIg infusion subsequent to consecutive COVID-19 mRNA vaccine doses and after 12 weeks. These were compared to 42 healthy subjects. Twenty-four (52%) therapeutic immunoglobulin samples contained anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. All patients with immune neuropathies (mean age = 65 ± 16 years, 25% female) were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG after COVID-19 vaccination. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA titers significantly decreased 12-14 weeks after vaccination (p = 0.02), whereas IgG titers remained stable (p = 0.2). IVIg did not significantly reduce intraindividual anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA/IgG serum titers in immune neuropathies (p = 0.69). IVIg-derived anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG did not alter serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG decrease after IVIg administration (p = 0.67). The authors concluded that this study indicates that IVIg does not impair the antibody response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in a short-term observation, when administered a minimum of 2 weeks after each vaccine dose. The infusion of current IVIg preparations that contain anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG does not significantly alter serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers.
Svačina MKR, Meißner A, Schweitzer F, Ladwig A, Sprenger-Svačina A, Klein I, Wüstenberg H, Kohle F, Schneider C, Grether NB, Wunderlich G, Fink GR, Klein F, Di Cristanziano V, Lehmann HC. Antibody response after COVID-19 vaccination in intravenous immunoglobulin-treated immune neuropathies. Eur J Neurol. 2022 Jul 16:10.1111/ene.15508. doi: 10.1111/ene.15508.
Pre-pandemic Alzheimer Disease biomarkers and anxious-depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 confinement in cognitively unimpaired adults
Increased anxious-depressive symptomatology is observed in the preclinical stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which may accelerate disease progression. In this article the authors investigated whether amyloid-β, cortical thickness in medial temporal lobe structures, neuroinflammation and sociodemographic factors were associated with greater anxious-depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 confinement. This retrospective observational study included cognitively unimpaired older adults from the ALFA (Alzheimer and FAmilies) cohort, the majority with a family history of sporadic AD. Participants performed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during the COVID-19 confinement. A subset had available retrospective (on average: 2.4 years before) HADS assessment, amyloid [18F] flutemetamol PET and structural MRI scans and CSF markers of neuroinflammation (interleukin-6 [IL-6], triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein levels). Multivariable linear regression models were performed to investigate the associations of pre-pandemic AD-related biomarkers and sociodemographic factors with HADS scores during the confinement. An analysis of covariance was also performed in order to adjust by participants’ pre-pandemic anxiety-depression levels. Finally, the authors explored the role of stress and lifestyle changes (sleep patterns, eating, drinking, smoking habits, and medication use) on the tested associations and performed sex-stratified analyses. 921 (254 with AD biomarkers) participants were included. Amyloid-β positivity (B=3.73; 95%CI=1.1 to 6.36; p=.006), caregiving (B=1.37; 95%CI=0.24 to 2.5; p=.018), sex (women: B=1.95; 95%CI=1.1 to 2.79; p<.001), younger age (B=-0.12; 95%CI=-0.18 to -0.052; p<.001) and lower education (B=-0.16; 95%CI=-0.28 to -0.042; p=.008) were associated with greater anxious-depressive symptoms during the confinement. Considering pre-pandemic anxiety-depression levels, the authors further observed an association between lower levels of CSF IL-6 (B=-5.11; 95%CI=-10.1 to -0.13; p=.044) and greater HADS scores. The results were independent of stress-related variables and lifestyle changes. Stratified analysis revealed that the associations were mainly driven by women. The authors concluded underlying that their results link AD-related pathophysiology and neuroinflammation with greater anxious-depressive symptomatology during the COVID-19-related confinement, notably in women. AD pathophysiology may increase neuropsychiatric symptomatology in response to stressors. This association may imply a worse clinical prognosis in people at risk for AD after the pandemic, and thus deserves to be considered by clinicians.
Akinci M, Peña-Gómez C, Operto G, Fuentes-Julian S, Deulofeu C, Sánchez-Benavides G, Milà-Alomà M, Grau-Rivera O, Gramunt N, Navarro A, Minguillón C, Fauria K, Suridjan I, Kollmorgen G, Bayfield A, Blennow K, Zetterberg H, Molinuevo JL, Suárez-Calvet M, Gispert JD, Arenaza-Urquijo EM. Pre-pandemic Alzheimer Disease Biomarkers and Anxious-Depressive Symptoms During the COVID-19 Confinement in Cognitively Unimpaired Adults. Neurology. 2022 Aug 2:10.1212/WNL.0000000000200948. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200948.