Case series/case reports (Indigo)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of baseline lymphocyte subset counts in predicting the outcome and severity of COVID-19 patients. Hospitalized patients confirmed to be infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were included and classified according to in-hospital mortality (survivors/nonsurvivors) and the maximal oxygen support/ventilation supply required (nonsevere/severe). Demographics, clinical and laboratory data, and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were retrospectively analyzed. Overall, 160 patients were retrospectively included in the study. T-lymphocyte subset (total CD3+, CD3+ CD4+, CD3+ CD8+, CD3+ CD4+ CD8+ double positive [DP] and CD3+ CD4− CD8− double negative [DN]) absolute counts were decreased in nonsurvivors and in patients with severe disease compared to survivors and nonsevere patients (p < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that absolute counts of CD3+ T-lymphocytes < 524 cells/µl, CD3+ CD4+ < 369 cells/µl, and the number of T-lymphocyte subsets below the cutoff (T-lymphocyte subset index [TLSI]) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Baseline T-lymphocyte subset counts and TLSI were also predictive of disease severity (CD3+ < 733 cells/µl; CD3+ CD4+ < 426 cells/µl; CD3+ CD8+ < 262 cells/µl; CD3+ DP < 4.5 cells/µl; CD3+ DN < 18.5 cells/µl). The authors concluded that the evaluation of peripheral T-lymphocyte absolute counts in the early stages of COVID-19 might represent a useful tool for identifying patients at increased risk of unfavorable outcomes.
Iannetta, M., Buccisano, F., Fraboni, D. et al. Baseline T-lymphocyte subset absolute counts can predict both outcome and severity in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients: a single center study. Sci Rep 11, 12762 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90983-0