Cross-sectional case-control studies (Blue)
Coronavirus disease-19 is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Headache is a common symptom during and after Coronavirus disease-19. In this article the authors aimed to study headache character in relation to COVID-19. This was a cross-sectional study. Patients who had Coronavirus disease-19, confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique and presented to the headache clinic within 3 months after the onset of infections were identified to the study. Study included patients diagnosed as primary headache disorders according to The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition. Participants were grouped into categories according to having previous or de novo headache. Descriptive data, paired sample t-test and the chi-squared test (X2) were used for statistical analyses of the data. A total of 121 patients were included in this study. Their mean age was 35.29 + 9.54 and most of them were females (83.5%). Prior to Coronavirus disease-19 infections, 78 (64.5%) had migraine and 11(9.1%) experienced a tension-type headache while 32 (26.4) reported de novo headache post Coronavirus disease-19. Patient had significant increase in headache days 11.09 ± 8.45 post Coronavirus disease-19 compared with 8.66 ± 7.49 headache days before Coronavirus disease-19 infection (p < 0.006). Post Coronavirus disease-19, the usage of analgesic increased significantly by the patient with migraine (2.31 ± 1.65 vs 3.05 ± 2.09, p = 0.002) while the patient with tension type headache had statistically significant increase in severity (5.556 ± 1.86 vs 7 ± 2.25, p = 0.033) and frequency (7 ± 6.29 vs 12.72 ± 7.96, p = 0.006) of headache attacks. Bi-frontal and temporal headache are the most reported (40.6% each) headache site among de novo headache group. Patients younger than 40 years had longer duration of the headache attack (18.50 ± 16.44 vs 5.5 ± 9.07, p = 0.045) post COVID-19. Male patients compared to females (8.66 ± 1.15 versus 5.93 ± 2.01 p = 0.04) had more severe headache post Coronavirus disease-19. De novo headache resolved within 1 month in most of patients (65.3%). The authors concluded that primary headache get worse after Coronavirus disease-19. De novo primary headache is frequent post Coronavirus disease-19 and resolve within 1 month. Headaches related to Coronavirus disease-19 are severe, present as migraine phenotype. Young male patients with Coronavirus disease-19 tend to have worse headache.
Al-Hashel JY, Abokalawa F, Alenzi M, Alroughani R, Ahmed SF. Coronavirus disease-19 and headache; impact on pre-existing and characteristics of de novo: a cross-sectional study. J Headache Pain. 2021 Aug 21;22(1):97. doi: 10.1186/s10194-021-01314-7.