Meta-analysis/systematic review (Red)
One year since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the authors aimed to summarize the frequency of neurological manifestations reported in COVID-19 patients and investigate the association of these manifestations with disease severity and mortality. PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library, clinicaltrials.gov and EMBASE were searched from 31st December 2019 to 15th December 2020 for studies enrolling consecutive COVID-19 patients presenting with neurological manifestations. Risk of bias was examined using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) scale. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed, and pooled prevalence and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated for neurological manifestations. Odds ratio (OR) and 95%CI were calculated to determine the association of neurological manifestations with disease severity and mortality. Presence of heterogeneity was assessed using I-square, meta-regression, and subgroup analyses. Statistical analyses were conducted in R version 3.6.2. Of 2,455 citations, 350 studies were included in this review, providing data on 145,721 COVID-19 patients, 89% of whom were hospitalized. Forty-one neurological manifestations (24 symptoms and 17 diagnoses) were identified. Pooled prevalence of the most common neurological symptoms included: fatigue (32%), myalgia (20%), taste impairment (21%), smell impairment (19%) and headache (13%). A low risk of bias was observed in 85% of studies; studies with higher risk of bias yielded higher prevalence estimates. Stroke was the most common neurological diagnosis (pooled prevalence- 2%). In COVID-19 patients aged ≥60, the pooled prevalence of acute confusion/delirium was 34% and the presence of any neurological manifestations in this age group was associated with mortality (OR 1.80; 95%CI 1.11 to 2.91). Up to one-third of COVID-19 patients analysed in this review experienced at least one neurological manifestation. One in 50 patients experienced stroke. In those over 60, more than one-third had acute confusion/delirium; the presence of neurological manifestations in this group was associated with near doubling of mortality. Results must be interpreted keeping in view the limitations of observational studies and associated bias.
Misra S, Kolappa K, Prasad M, Radhakrishnan D, Thakur KT, Solomon T, Michael BD, Winkler AS, Beghi E, Guekht A, Pardo CA, Wood GK, Hsiang-Yi Chou S, Fink EL, Schmutzhard E, Kheradmand A, Hoo FK, Kumar A, Das A, Srivastava AK, Agarwal A, Dua T, Prasad K. Frequency of Neurologic Manifestations in COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Neurology. 2021 Oct 11:10.1212/WNL.0000000000012930. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000012930.