Case series/case reports (Indigo)
SARS-CoV2 has been reported to have neurotropic and neuroinvasive features and neurological sequalae with a wide range of reported neurological manifestations, including cerebrovascular disease, skeletal muscle injury, meningitis, encephalitis, and demyelination, as well as seizures and focal status epilepticus. In this case series, the authors analysed continuous video-EEGs of patients with COVID-19 infection to determine the presence of specific EEG features or epileptogenicity. All continuous video-EEG tracings done on SARS-CoV2-positive patients during a 2-week period from April 5, 2020, to April 19, 2020, were reviewed. The demographics, clinical characteristics, imaging, and EEG features were analysed and presented. Of 23 patients undergoing continuous video-EEG, 16 were COVID positive and were included. Continuous video-EEG monitoring was ordered for “altered mental status” in 11 of 16 patients and for “clinical seizure” in 5 of 16 patients. None of the patients had seizures or status epilepticus as a presenting symptom of COVID-19 infection. Instead, witnessed clinical seizures developed as results of COVID-19-related medical illness(es): anoxic brain injury, stroke/hemorrhage, lithium (Li) toxicity (because of kidney failure), hypertension, and renal disease. Three patients required therapeutic burst suppression because of focal nonconvulsive status epilepticus, status epilepticus/myoclonus secondary to anoxic injury from cardiac arrest, and one for sedation (and with concomitant EEG abnormalities secondary to Li toxicity). The authors concluded that in this observational case series of 16 patients with COVID-19 who were monitored with continuous video-EEG, most patients experienced a nonspecific encephalopathy. Clinical seizures and electrographic status epilepticus were the second most commonly observed neurological problem.