Cross-sectional case-control studies (Blue)
Patients with COVID-19 can present with distinct neurological manifestations. This study assessed serum and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines in a cohort of patients with various neurological manifestations of COVID-19 including headaches and encephalopathies. The authors showed that inflammatory neurological diseases were associated with increased levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, CXCL8, and CXCL10 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Conversely, encephalopathy was associated with high serum levels of IL-6, CXCL8, and active TGF-β1. Inflammatory syndromes of the central nervous system (CNS) in COVID-19 can appear early, as a para-infectious process without significant systemic involvement, or without direct evidence of SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion. At the same time, encephalopathy appeared mainly influenced by peripheral events, including inflammatory cytokines.