Case series/case reports (Indigo)
The genesis of headache in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently unclear and the multitude of disease symptoms often further hinders locating the source of pain. Interestingly, many subjects with COVID-19 have symptoms of acute rhinosinusitis. The relation between nasal symptoms and headache in SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unknown. This bi-center longitudinal study evaluated symptoms in consecutive COVID-19 patients in the participating practices. The first assessment was performed during the initial consultation after infection confirmation. That was followed up by a second consultation after a median 9 days. 130 patients were included in the study (80 women, 50 men; mean age 46.9 years). Headache was highly prevalent at the first visit (72%) and significantly associated with acute rhinosinusitis symptoms. The odds ratio for headache in subjects with rhinosinusitis was 3.5. Headache could be attributed to systemic viral infection in 96% and to acute rhinosinusitis in 51% of cases according to 3rd edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Criterium C.3 (exacerbation of headache by pressure applied over paranasal sinuses) and C.4 (ipsilaterality of headache and sinusitis) had low sensitivity in headache attributed to acute rhinosinusitis. The authors concluded that nasal inflammation is associated with headache in COVID-19, although the pain mechanism lies probably in a systemic reaction to the virus. 3rd edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria for headache attributed to acute rhinosinusitis need adjusting to the current understanding of acute sinonasal infection.
Straburzyński M, Nowaczewska M, Budrewicz S, Waliszewska-Prosół M. COVID-19-related headache and sinonasal inflammation: A longitudinal study analysing the role of acute rhinosinusitis and ICHD-3 classification difficulties in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cephalalgia. 2021 Sep 20:3331024211040753. doi: 10.1177/03331024211040753.